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Working Paper Series

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Working papers disseminate economic research relevant not only to the tasks and functions of the Bank of Lithuania and of the European System of Central Banks but also appealing more broadly to the academic community in economics and finance. They present, discuss and analyse the results of original and academically rigorous theoretical and/or empirical research. Working papers constitute the basis for publications in leading academic journals, making contributions to the existing literature in the fields of economics and finance. They encourage collaboration between the researchers of the Bank of Lithuania and other central banks, Lithuanian and foreign universities and research institutes.

Papers are only available in English.

No 124

Life-cycle Worker Flows and Cross-country Differences in Aggregate Employment

  • Abstract

    We document how worker flows between employment, unemployment, and out of the labor force, vary by age and gender for a large panel of European countries. We develop and calibrate an extended Diamond-Mortensen-Pissarides model that captures all the salient features of these data. The model assigns a major role to the production technology in driving differences in aggregate employment, while, in contrast to Standard analyses, labor-market policies play only a secondary role. Search intensity and a laborforce participation decision are key for propagating the effects of technology across age and gender groups, and for explaining the variation in aggregate employment.

    Keywords: Employment, Unemployment, Labor Force Participation, Life cycle, Worker Flows, Labor Market Institutions

    JEL classification: E02, E24, J21, J64, J82

No 123

The term structure of judgement: interpreting survey disagreement

  • Abstract

    Consensus forecasts by professionals are highly accurate, yet hide large heterogeneity. We develop a framework to extract the judgement component from survey forecasts and analyse the extent to which it contributes to respondents’ disagreement. For the average respondent, we find a substantial contribution of judgement about the current quarter, which often steers unconditional forecasts towards the realisation, thereby improving accuracy. We identify the structural components of judgement by exploiting stochastic volatility and give an economic interpretation to expected future shocks. For individual respondents, just over one-third of the disagreement is due to differences in the coefficients or models used, and the remainder is due to different assessments of future shocks; the latter mostly concerns the size of the shocks, while there is general agreement on their source.

    Keywords: Expectations Formation, Identification via Stochastic Volatility, Judgement, Survey of Professional Forecasters

    JEL classification: C32, C33, C51, D84, E37

No 122

Household Spending Dynamics: The Impact of House Price-Rent Spread and Credit Constraints

  • Abstract

    This paper explores how fluctuations in the house price-rent spread influence household spending, taking into account credit constraints. We incorporate a housing spread shock, representing changes in the future value of residential property, into a model of household decisionmaking with borrowing frictions. Using halfcentury data from 28 OECD countries, we find that housing spread shocks are more persistent than credit shocks, which induce ‘boom-bust’ dynamics. We also identify asymmetries once the joint effect of shocks to housing spread and borrowing frictions is analyzed, particularly in crisis periods, underscoring the importance of policies addressing credit conditions and household expectations to stabilize the economy when traditional tools are less effective.

    Keywords: household expectations; house price-rent spread; credit frictions; interest rates; household consumption

    JEL classification: D15, E21, E5, G51

No 121

Striking a Bargain: Narrative Identification of Wage Bargaining Shocks

  • Abstract

    We quantify wage bargaining shocks’ effects on macroeconomic aggregates in Germany using a structural vector auto-regression model. We identify exogenous variation in bargaining power from episodes of minimum wage introduction and industrial disputes. This disciplines the impulse responses of unemployment and output, and sharpens inference on the behaviour of other variables, which is consistent with theoretical predictions from search and matching models. We find that wage bargaining shocks are an important contributor to agregate fluctuations in unemployment and inflation, exhibit close to full passthrough to consumer prices, and imply plausible dynamics for the vacancy rate, firms’ profits, and the labor share.

    Keywords: Wage bargaining, minimum wage, industrial action, narrative restrictions, structural vector autoregression.

    JEL classification: J2, J3, E32, C32.